Saturday, December 31, 2011

Sitting Bull ceremonial tomahawk head

Dear Friends:

My grandfather, Paul Shepersky b. 1869, was given a stone spoon and ceremonial tomahawk head by relatives of Sitting

Bull in the 1907-1911 time frame.

After his parents died he and a couple brothers were placed in a school for Indian boys and a few white orphans run by the

Catholic Church. 

He became a Methodist pastor and in 1907-1911 proved up a claim near Cherry Creek & Cheyenne River, was a pastor to

settlers and brought the words of Jesus in Sioux on the reservation. Because of this he was given the items they said had

belonged to Sitting Bull.

My father was born in 1902 and was given the items by his father. My father gave them to me. I gave them to Klein

Museum in Mobridge, SD. Paul's youngest daughter lives in New Jersey and also authenticates the items.


Allen D. Shepersky    

Top 10 Illegally Shared Movies of 2011 !

Pirates Like Vin Diesel - #1 most pirated movie of 2011 !

We usually rely on year-end box office numbers and movie critics to determine which films most captivated our hearts and attention, and this year’s big winner was the final movie in the Harry Potter franchise.

But cinematic demand can also be seen by looking at the most illegally downloaded movies of the year on Bit Torrent networks, and this year’s top winner in that category is action flick Fast Five.

According to data compiled by, the latest and fifth addition to the Fast and the Furious film series starring Vin Diesel was the most illegally-downloaded movie of the year, with 9.3 million downloads. Although Fast Five brought in about $626 million at the box office, it only ranked sixth in overall ticket sales.

Meanwhile, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows Part 2 brought in the most money at theaters worldwide with $1.3 billion, but it was only ranked 10th in pirated downloads (6 million downloads).

The Hangover Part II was second on’s list with 8.8 million pirated downloads, followed byThor with 8.3 million downloads and Source Code, a science fiction film starring Jake Gyllenhaal that didn’t perform too well at theaters but became a fan favorite, with 7.9 million downloads.

Many films that topped the list weren’t blockbuster hits, and the second and third top earners at the box office – Transformers: Dark of the Moon and The Twilight Saga: Breaking Dawn – didn’t make the top 10.

Facebook Timeline Is Basically Your Digital Resume !

Gerrit Hall is CEO and co-founder of RezScore, a free web application that reads, analyzes and grades resumes instantly to help job seekers write the best resume possible. Connect with Gerrit and RezScore on Facebook and Twitter.

For those of you who don’t know (have you been living under a rock?), Facebook is slowly debuting the Timeline to its 800+ million users. Currently, this update is available for those who opt in, but it’s rolling out to replace the Facebook profile we’ve all come to know, love, and obsessively study.

As much as jobs folks like me like to think Facebook users automatically think about their careers when Zuckerberg rolls out a new feature, I’ll admit that it’s not the case. So, I’m here to say the new Timeline profile format has made Facebook more job-search friendly than ever. After all, it’s a resume. That’s right. When you stop and look at it, Facebook’s Timeline is effectively a resume. From the giant cover image at the top to the chronological organization down the line, your Facebook profile is a resume for your life, not just your career.

What Does This Mean?

In recent years, it’s pretty common knowledge that an increasing number of employers are turning to the likes of Google and social media to learn more about applicants and current employees. Once Timeline goes 100% live, expect this number to explode.

Until now, the Facebook profile has provided a current slice of a user’s life. If you want to get into the nitty-gritty details or look a week, month, or year into the past, it takes some searching and clicking. With Timeline, employers can learn more about users by searching specific time frames and seeing how the details mesh together.

Ultimately, Facebook is going to become the go-to site for more curious employers and clients. Personalized and manicured Timelines are simply going to be more attractive.

How Can I Use This To My Advantage?

Don’t spaz. Fortunately, the Timeline makes presentation easy for those of use who aren’t as Facebook-savvy as we’d like. Privacy settings will remain the same, posts will fall into place, and you’ll find that mixed media fits into a pretty snazzy arrangement.

​Check the locks. It’s true that no privacy settings are going to be changed. However, those dorky status updates you wrote in 2006 are going to be a whole lot more accessible on your Timeline. Facebook gives you seven days to review the new format before your Timeline goes live, so do your due diligence now.

Pick your crowd. Along with overall privacy settings, your Timeline is going to work a whole lot better if you refine your audiences. Organize your business contacts into a list so that they’re the only ones who can see your industry-specific content. Personalizing your profile to fit the crowd will make your Timeline look so much better.

Customize. One of the most striking differences you’ll find in the Facebook Timeline would have to be thecover photo. It’s smack dab at the top of your profile, so make it nice. Pick something that works for everyone who could possibly see your profile. You already know that picture from the New Year’s party isn’t going to work.

Prioritize. If you’re an active user, then all your content isn’t going to fit on your Timeline. While Facebook automatically guesses what content is important enough to be expanded, it could definitely use your input. Expand the information you think is important so that it can be seen by the right people.

Do you think the Timeline is similar to a resume? How else can it be used in the job search? Let us know what you think in the comments below.

Social Media Job Listings

Every week we post a list of social media and web job opportunities. While we publish a huge range of job listings, we’ve selected some of the top social media job opportunities from the past two weeks to get you started. Happy hunting!

Friday, December 30, 2011

Twitter accounts are read by U.S. government spies !

Tweeting the word 'drill' could mean your Twitter account is read by U.S. government spies


The Department for Homeland Security announced plans to scan social networks for keywords such as 'human to animal', 'outbreak', 'strain' and 'drill', and then identify users, claims an online privacy group

The Department for Homeland Security announced plans to scan social networks for keywords such as 'human to animal', 'outbreak', 'strain' and 'drill', and then identify users, claims an online privacy group

The Department of Homeland Security makes fake Twitter and Facebook profiles for the specific purpose of scanning the networks for 'sensitive' words - and tracking people who use them. 

Simply using a word or phrase from the DHS's 'watch' list could mean that spies from the government read your posts, investigate your account, and attempt to identify you from it, acccording to an online privacy group.

The words which attract attention range from ones seemingly related to diseases or bioweapons such as 'human to animal' and 'outbreak' to other, more obscure words such as 'drill' and 'strain'.

The DHS also watches for words such as 'illegal immigrant'. 

The DHS outlined plans to scans blogs, Twitter and Facebook for words such as 'illegal immigrant', 'outbreak', 'drill', 'strain', 'virus', 'recovery', 'deaths', 'collapse', 'human to animal' and 'trojan', according to an 'impact asssessment' document filed by the agency.

When its search tools net an account using the phrases, they record personal information.

It's still not clear how this information is used - and who the DHS shares it with.

An online privacy group, the Electronic Privacy Information Centre has requested information on the DHS's scans, which it says the agency announced in February. 

The privacy group has requested information on the DHS, and contractors it claims are working with the agency to scan social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter.

The group says that the government has used scans of social media before to analyse specific events - such as the 2010 BP oil spill - but this general 'watching' of social media using fake profiles is new.

'The initiatives were designed to gather information from 'online forums, blogs, public websites, and message boards,' to store and analyze the information gathered, and then to 'disseminate relevant and appropriate de-identified information to federal, state, local, and foreign governments and private sector partners,' the group said in a court filing. 

The group claims that a request under the Freedom of Information Act to access the documentation has gone unanswered.

Read more:

Thursday, December 29, 2011

Murkowski Pushes for Hollywood Walk of Fame Star for Ray Mala, the ‘Eskimo Clark Gable’

Ray Mala

Ray Mala

Alaska Sen. Lisa Murkowski recently delivered remarks on the Senate floor celebrating the late Alaska Native actor Ray Mala, who would have celebrated his 105th birthday on December 27. Murkowski described Mala as “our nation’s first Native American international film star,” and concluded her remarks thusly:

“It is a great honor for me to reflect upon the life of this inspirational Alaska Native icon, and to offer a tribute to his spirited and really very triumphant journey from small town village boy to silver screen leading man. Alaskans look forward to the day when Ray Mala’s magnificent star might be posthumously added to the Hollywood Walk of Fame, a tribute to the nation’s first ever Native American film star.”

The last sentence is no idle speculation — Murkowski and others are actively lobbying for a Walk of Fame star for Mala. Ted Mala Jr., the actor’s son, and Lael Morgan, author of Eskimo Star: From the Tundra to Tinseltown, the Ray Mala Story, filed an application with the Hollywood Chamber of Commerce last summer, but Mala was passed over. Walk of Fame staffer Ana Martinez, affectionately known as Star Girl, told the Alaska Dispatch that getting a star for Mala won’t be easy. About 24 stars are awarded each year, she said, but only one or two of them are posthumous. Last year, the late soul singer Barry White was chosen over Mala and many other deceased nominees.

Ray Mala was born Ray Wise in 1906 in Candle, Alaska. His father was a Russian Jewish immigrant and his mother was Alaska Native. He was in his mid-teens when he worked as a cameraman for and acted in Primitive Love, a movie filmed in Alaska, and before his 20th birthday had moved to Hollywood. There he worked as a cameraman for Fox Film Corporation. He starred in Igloo, then Eskimo (also known as Mala the Magnificent), which was filmed in Alaska and released in 1933. Eskimo was the first film to win the Academy Award for editing. Mala appeared more than 20 other films, among them The Jungle Princess (1936), Hawk of the Wilderness (1938), and Flash Gordon Conquers the Universe (1940). He continued to work as a cinematographer on such films as Alfred Hitchcock’s Shadow of a Doubt (1943), Laura (1944), and Les Miserables (1952). Mala’s final film, released in 1952 — the year of his death — was Red Snow, one of the first films to deal with the cold war and the threat of nuclear warfare. In 2009, Time magazine named Ray Mala to a “Top 10 Alaskans” list published in celebration of the 50th anniversary of Alaskan statehood.

“He was an inspiration and his work was also important because it preserved certain ways of traditional hunting and dancing on film,” Mala Jr. told the Alaska Dispatch. “He always gave back and put his people first. In Los Angeles, he was known as the Famous Eskimo and he represented his people in a good way.”

Getting a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame isn’t simply a matter of selection, as blogger Dan Bloom points out at The “honoree” is also required to put up a hefty sum and to attract celebrities to the unveiling ceremony. “We know there is a $30,000 charge to get a star there,” Lael Morgan told Bloom, “and the price may go up we hear, but you don’t have to pay unless you win. We figured we’d cross that bridge when we come to it.”

Most censored Native American newsmakers

Native America Calling featuring most censored Native newsmakers 2011

By Brenda Norrell

Censored News

Native America Calling will host the most censored Native American newsmakers of 2011 on Friday. Guests will include the Censored News Person of the Year: The Indigenous Woman.

Debra White Plume, Lakota from Pine Ridge, S.D., who fought the Tarsands Keystone XL pipeline this year, will be among the guests on the live radio show hosted by Harlan McKosato, Sac and Fox. White Plume, activist and grandmother, was among those arrested at the White House in September and also fights uranium mining on Lakota lands.

Klee Benally, Navajo, is also a featured guest. The protests to protect sacred San Francisco Peaks in Arizona, and the lockdowns to heavy equipment, were the most accessed articles at Censored News in 2011. Native photographers, Youths of the Peaks, provided Censored News with photos of the lockdowns and protests as those happened.

The Indigenous Environmental Network is also invited to join the live radio program. IEN members were arrested at the White House protesting the Keystone XL pipeline. IEN activists were a voice for the Protection of Mother Earth, and against bogus carbon credits, at the UN Climate Summit in Durban, South Africa.
Two of those IEN newsmakers are Native American youths: Kandi Mossett, who hosted the IEN conference in her homeland at the Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara Nations in North Dakota; and Mohawk photographer Ben Powless.

Powless and Youths of the Peaks were honored as Censored News photographers of the year.
Native American women continue to take the lead in their home communities in the struggle for justice, from Ofelia Rivas, on O'odham lands, to Louise Benally at Big Mountain on Navajoland, to Kahentinetha Horn, publisher of Mohawk Nation News.

In the news this year, Wikileaks exposed US spying on Indigenous Peoples from Mapuche in South America to the Mohawks in Canada.

Further, Wikileaks exposed the role of the US in promoting mining while Indigenous Peoples were dying to protect their lands in Peru. Both Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez and Bolivian President Evo Morales were targets of US State Department spying.
In the US, hacktivists Anonymous exposed Arizona police files revealing white supremacists and off duty Marines patrolling the Arizona border with assault weapons. Meanwhile, the militarization of the border continues, with drones overhead, and Border Patrol agents abusing Indian people in their homelands.

In the original, breaking news category, Censored News published a diagram of the new $1.5 billion spy towers being planned for the Tohono O'odham Nation, following the boondoggle of the previous $1 billion spy towers on the Arizona border that didn't work.

Censored News also published an Attorney General report showing that Project Gunrunner began in 2005 in Texas under the Bush administration. An ATF brochure of assault weapons of Project Gunrunner in 2008 that were allowed to "walk" to drug cartels in Mexico, was also published. It was exposed when Lulzsec hacked the Arizona police files.

The US/Mexico border series at Censored News followed the Protect the Peaks articles and was the second most accessed group of articles this year.

Throughout Indigenous lands in the Americas, Indian people continue to fight the environmental genocide of coal-fired power plants, uranium mining, silver and gold mining, and oil and gas drilling. Wikaritari (Huicholes) battle silver mining on their sacred lands in Mexico. On the Blood Reserve in Canada, women stood in front of oil and gas trucks to stop the destruction.
Throughout Indian lands, the battle continues for clean drinking water, the protection of the aquifers and to halt the theft of Indian water rights.

In the US, Northern Paiute Wesley Dick, Kwassuh, led a battle against the Nevada Game and Fish Department and won, after he was charged while gathering (tules) cattails for traditional crafts.

In Phoenix in November, Navajo and O'odham led protests against ALEC, the American Legislative Exchange Council, corporate profiteers coopting the state legislature. Private prison profiteers, who pack their jails with migrants, American Indians and other people of color, are among them.

The ALEC protests included an action at the Salt River Project, which operates one of the Navajo Nation's three coal-fired power plants. The protesters were pepper sprayed by police at the Scottsdale resort where the conference was held. O'odham veteran David Ortega was hospitalized.

Racism continued, from violent beatings of Indian people by white supremacists, to the censorship of their voices in the newsrooms. 

Join us on Friday, Dec. 30, 2011. Listen online at 
1 pm Eastern; noon Central; 11 am Mountain; 10 am Pacific.

Top stories 2011:

#1: Locked Down: Protest halts destruction on San Francisco Peaks
#2: Lakotas to Diane Sawyer: Let Lakotas tell their story
Updated with video from Lakota teens: ‘We are more than that’
#3: Hacked data reveals US Marines as contract killers
#4: Video: Who shot Scott Olsen at Occupy Oakland?
#5: Neo Nazis and militia show up armed at Occupy Phoenix
#6: Video: Police beating Berkeley students, young women:
#7: Tucson: Hackers reveal data targeting ethnic studies
School cop reports ethnic studies
#8: Flagstaff police attack and arrest Protect the Peaks marchers

Top story now:

Anonymous on a holiday roll with Stratfor and the hashtag subpoena:

Top stories in December:

Censored News Person of the Year: The Indigenous Woman:
Obama’s nearly secret meeting with Native American leaders:
O’odham Pepper Sprayed in ALEC protest
Censored Person of the Year: The Indigenous Woman
Navajo Louise Benally upstages Obama
Ute Tribe urges investigation of Maori pepper sprayed by police
De-Occupy O'odham Lands: In Defense of the Land and Peoples
Washington: Native Leaders to Obama: 'NO' to Tarsands Pipeline:
The American Indian Genocide Museum: The Confederate Flag, Buffalo Soliders at Wounded Knee and Clarifying History

Brenda Norrell has been a reporter in Indian country for 29 years. During the 18 years that she lived on the Navajo Nation, she reported for Navajo Times, AP and USA Today. After serving as a longtime staff reporter for Indian Country Today, she was censored, then terminated, and created Censored News, now in its fifth year.

PBS documentary on Kankakee River

A four-person team is working to create A PBS documentary on he history of the Kankakee River. 

Tentatively called, "Everglades of the North: The Story of the Kankakee River" the group hopes to have an hour-long presentation for WYIN-Lakeshore Public Television (Channel 21 on the Comcast Cable System in Kankakee) by April or May.

If the group hits their production deadline of Feb. 1, they hope the documentary will be picked up by other Indiana, Illinois and Midwest PBS stations.

The first 21 minutes of the film were shown this week at the meeting of the Kankakee Kiwanis Club at the Quality Inn & Suites. The plan is to eventually expand the film to an hour.

It's a film that will have a lot of Kankakee County references. The late Bill Byrns, who edited the outdoors pages of The Daily Journal for many years before his untimely death this year, is interviewed and appears in the production.

The artwork of local historian Vic Johnson, who wrote the Up 'Til Now column for The Daily Journal for many years, is shown on screen. Charles Balesi, who along with Johnson, is a co-curator of the new French Pioneer Museum in the Stone Barn in downtown Kankakee, is interviewed for the film.

The work is the brainchild of producer and writer Jeff Manes. Manes was born in Kankakee and raised in Sumava Resorts and Lake Village.

He's been around the Kankakee River all his life and "loves the area," he says.

He had worked in the steel mills in East Chicago for 25 years before being downsized in 2000. Since then he has written fiction, poetry, essays and more than 400 columns for the Lowell Tribune and the Gary Post-Tribune.

"I have some books," Manes says, "but not a film."

Pat Wisniewski, of Valparaiso, Ind., is the producer. She told the stories of Indiana World War II veterans in a film that was shown as an addition to the Ken Burns' series "The War."

Also involved are Tom Desch, who crafted a 2001 documentary, "The Field" about the proposed third Chicago airport at Peotone. A native of Kankakee County and a Kankakee River fisherman, he has also edited for the Biography channel and Animal Planet. Brian Kallies, who has worked on the specials "Seven Wonders of Chicago" and "Chicago by Boat" is helping with editing and photography.

The film follows a historical timeline, beginning with Indian times. It travels through the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812. The history of Gurdon Hubbard and Noel LeVasseur, both early traders, and Princess Wach-E-Kee, wife to Hubbard and later to LeVasseur, is covered.

The film also covers the removal of the Potawatomi, the primary Native Americans in the area, who were sent west in what was known as the Trail of Death.

There is also a historical note about Lew Wallace, the Civil War general and fisherman who wrote some of his best works along the banks of the Kankakee. Wallace's "Ben-Hur," made as an epic movie three times, was the bestselling fictional book of the 19th century.

There is one irony in the story. Right now, no one knows how it will end. A century ago, swamps were thought to be bad for health. The environmental movement at the time dug a deeper channel for the river, draining the swamp. That's particularly noticeable on the Indiana side of the border. The river flows east to west across the two states.

Today, the environmental thinking has reversed. Where possible, rivers and landmarks are returned to their natural state -- even going so far as to remove dams.    

Wednesday, December 28, 2011

The Life and Writings of Julio C. Tello: America's First Indigenous Archaeologist

Julio C. Tello An Account of His Rise to Prominence in Peruvian Archaeology


JULIO C. TELLO was a world authority on Peruvian archaeology (Stewart and Peterson 1942:271). He has been described as an "Indian from the ranks and human dynamo, founder of three important museums and discoverer of culture after culture ... [who] knows as much Peruvian archeology as the rest of us put together" (Kroeber 1944:5-6). He was committed to the improvement of his race, and, in part, he chose to accomplish this through politics and archaeology (Daggett 1992a:193 n.2). Toward the end of his life, he was promoted as the New World's greatest archaeologist, a national institution virtually unto himself (West 1982:87). Even his detractors were forced to admit his archaeological preeminence (e.g., Beals 1934:105-106), while their criticisms often provided Tello with the motivation he needed to succeed (Tealdo 1942:8).

This chapter chronicles Tello's rise to prominence in the sphere of Peruvian archaeology. His encyclopedic knowledge reflected a life rich in archaeological experiences. The sites he investigated as well as the lives he touched upon probably each number in the thousands. It would be futile to try to recount them all; hence, only a few of each will be identified. Controversy played an important part in Tello's career, and, as such, its discussion merits inclusion here. In addition, because Tello's career was punctuated by two periods of upheaval that followed rifts in the nation's political fabric, some details of a political nature will be provided. Finally, in this same vein, because Tello used his position in the national legislature to promote, in part, his archaeological agenda, a brief review of this aspect of his political career will be presented.

The Preparatory Years: 1880-1912

Julio Cesar Tello Rojas was born on April 11, 1880, in the central highland community of Huarochiri (fig. 1.1). By the age of twelve, he had distinguished himself from his siblings by his keen inquisitiveness and unusually high level of energy. At that time, his aunt Maria, who worked as a chambermaid in the presidential palace, urged that he be sent to Lima to continue his education. The family agreed, and father and son left on horseback early on the morning of March 29, 1893, arriving in Lima late in the afternoon of April 1. His father arranged a pension for him and enrolled him in the Colegio de Lima on the advice of Maria (Mejia 1948:3-7, 1964:53-64).

At this time, Lima was still recovering from an occupation by Chilean forces during the years 1881 to 1884. The disastrous war with Chile had caused many of Peru's elite to conclude native Peruvians needed to be more fully integrated into the national framework if a recurrence of this military debacle was to be avoided. In July 1895 Nicolas de Pierola was elected president, and this initiated nearly two decades of unusually stable government in Peru (Werlich 1978:112-141). Hence, it was a most propitious time for native Peruvians like Tello to be in Lima. Unfortunately, his father's untimely death around this time left him financially bereft, and, save his aunt Maria's commitment to pay his school fees, he became responsible for all his expenses. He survived by selling newspapers on the street and by carrying luggage at the train station (Niles 1937:75-76). Too, he found work in a surgeon's office, and this experience so impressed him that he decided that he wanted to become a surgeon himself (Mejia 1964:66-67).

Tello excelled in school, despite his economic hardship, and he became friendly with one classmate in particular, Ricardo Palma (hereafter, Ricardo). Ricardo was the son of the Ricardo Palma, traditionalist and director of the Biblioteca Nacional. Through his son, he came to appreciate Tello's intellect as well as his plight, and he endeavored to help. The elder Palma hired Tello to deliver his mail to him daily, insisting that this be done during the noon hour, ensuring, thereby, that Tello had at least one meal a day (Niles 1937:76).

In March 1900 Tello and his friend Ricardo entered the Facultad de Ciencias of the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos in Lima (Mejia 1964:69). Sometime later, however, Tello received a letter from home in which he was told that money was no longer available to help him with his schooling and that he must return to Huarochiri. This crisis was averted through an "amazing coincidence." According to the story, a position unexpectedly became available at the Biblioteca Nacional, and Tello was hired by the elder Palma to work at the library beginning July 7, 1900 (Anonymous 1958). Whether true or not, certainly the elder Palma had indicated a strong inclination to help Tello and was in a position to do so.

During 1901 Tello took a course in natural science with Jose Sebastian Barranca. Then seventy years old, Barranca had developed a strong interest in linguistics, and he found in Tello a native Quechua speaker who could assist him with his research. At Barranca's request, Tello conducted his first fieldwork that year during a vacation period (Mejia 1948:8). During February 1902 he made his first trip to Tupe in Yauyos Province to begin his study of the Kauqui dialect, returning in 1905 and later in 1926 to complete his work (Espejo 1959:24). On March 29, 1902, he and Ricardo entered their first year in the Facultad de Medicina at San Marcos (Mejia 1964:73). On April 7, 1902, Tello was made an official conservator at the Biblioteca Nacional (Espejo 1959:22), and in 1903 he was given a position to last through 1904 at the Museo de Raimondi located in an annex of the Facultad de Medicina (Mejia 1948:8-9). At this time, this facility was the closest thing to a national museum in Peru, and its collections included archaeological, ethnological, botanical, and zoological specimens (Tello and Mejia 1967:44, 52).

While cataloging the anthropological collection at the Biblioteca Nacional during 1904, Tello came upon the Sixteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology. This thick volume included a report on trephination (Muniz and McGee 1897) and accompanying photos of trephinated skulls. Tello was stunned. One of the photos was of a skull that had been collected by one of his older brothers (Lothrop 1948:51) on behalf of his father, who was then the mayor of Huarochiri and had received official orders from Lima to collect skulls. This skull and others were sent to Lima, where they became the property of Manuel A. Muniz. Tello's chance discovery inspired him to study the English language (Lothrop 1948:51; Tealdo 1942:8). He was likewise inspired to begin collecting the remains of his ancestors (Mejia 1967b:vii). During his 1905 vacations, Tello began a systematic exploration of the provinces of Huarochiri and Yauyos (Mejia 1948:9). At times alone, at times with Ricardo, he visited numerous archaeological sites (Mejia 1964:73). Members of the Tello family and local laborers were used when needed (Palma 1957). Tello and his classmate returned to Lima with an especially rich collection of pathological skulls in March 1906. After consulting with his faculty advisers, Tello shifted the emphasis of his research from linguistics to the study of these skulls (Espejo 1959:63).

On Friday evening, May 4, 1906, in the salon of Lima's Sociedad Geografica, Tello made his public debut. He presented a detailed discussion on trephination that was illustrated by thirty trephinated skulls, a number of mummies, and various accompanying artifacts that he and Ricardo had recently found at sites in the vicinity of Huarochiri (Espejo 1959:62-65). Among those in attendance was the German archaeologist Max Uhle (Anonymous 1906), who had recently been contracted by the Peruvian government to create and direct a national museum of archaeology.

At the turn of the century, there had developed an enthusiasm for Peru's ancient past previously unknown in Lima's intellectual circles (Rowe 1954:11). Tapping into this enthusiasm, the enlightened government of Jose Pardo created, in February 1905, the Instituto Historico del Peru. In part, it was charged with the protection of the nation's archaeological heritage. Then, in May, the government founded the Museo de Historia Nacional, which was to operate under the institute (Tello 1959:36). What was needed was someone with expertise to run the museum, and Uhle was an obvious choice. He had conducted extensive fieldwork in Peru during 1896-1897, 1899-1901, and 1903-1905; had been the first to conduct stratigraphic excavations in Peru (Rowe 1959:5-6); and, during this period, had effectively laid the framework for Andean archaeology (Rowe 1954:1). Late in 1905, upon his return to Lima from an extensive expedition sponsored by the University of California, Uhle agreed to accept the challenge of establishing a national museum of archaeology (Rowe 1954:11).

The Museo de Historia Nacional officially opened on July 29, 1906 (Tello 1959:36), and Uhle immediately began work at various sites in the Rimac Valley. In effect, Lima bore witness to the birth of a national program of archaeological investigation, and the museum, which served to showcase the collected artifacts, became a new resource for students like Tello and his friend Ricardo. Modeled pottery at this museum, which exemplified specific pathologies pertinent to his research, became an integral part of Ricardo's thesis on the suggestion of Tello, who first saw the pieces on display (Palma 1908:56).

On May 15, 1907, Tello began work as an intern at the university's hospital, and on November 16, 1908, he successfully defended his thesis on the antiquity of syphilis in Peru (Mejia 1948:9). His thesis was accepted by acclamation, a first for the university. He had amassed an incredible collection of some 15,000 skulls and mummies. More than 1,000 of these skulls evidenced pathologies, while more than 500 showed evidence of trephination. His thesis committee recommended that the nation purchase Tello's collection for the purpose of establishing a Museum of Pathological Anatomy at San Marcos (Espejo 1959:28-29).

Tello was subsequently advised by the elder Palma to attend a dinner being held to honor a recent graduate of San Marcos. Palma, as one of the featured speakers, used this occasion to extol the achievements of Tello and, in effect, to introduce Tello to the intellectual elite of Lima (Tealdo 1942:9). Palma continued to advance Tello's cause at every opportunity. The university had published a special edition of Tello's thesis, and a copy was read at the First Pan American Congress, which was being held in Santiago, Chile (Espejo 1959:29). Two Americans who attended this congress later visited the Biblioteca Nacional. Antonio Miro Quesada accompanied them, and he introduced them to the elder Palma. Palma, in turn, introduced them to Tello. As they were leaving, Miro Quesada said to Tello that he was going to see to it that these Americans helped him with his career. Miro Quesada, a lawyer, journalist, politician, and member of the family that owned and operated the Lima daily El Comercio, made good on his promise. Tello later received by mail a Harvard catalog and grant application (Tealdo 1942:9).

On April 30, 1909, after completing his internship and passing his final exams, Tello was made doctor and surgeon by San Marcos (Mejia 1948:9). A month later, on May 29, a brother and two sons of the late president Nicolas de Pierola led an attack on the presidential palace. Loyal soldiers quickly put down this attempted coup, and Augusto B. Leguia, who had been elected president the previous year, took this opportunity to arrest not only the participants but other critics of his as well. Students from the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos demonstrated for their release, and mounted soldiers and police attacked the students, killing one and wounding six others (Werlich 1978:133). In this suddenly unstable political atmosphere, Tello contemplated his future. The city of Lima, in its municipal session of July 28, 1909, awarded Tello a gold medal. This may have inspired the Leguia government to act because on August 21 Tello was awarded a two-year scholarship to study abroad (Mejia 1948:9). Though he had been leaning toward continuing his studies in France, he decided to go to the United States when Harvard University offered him free tuition (Lothrop 1948:51). After paying respects to his family in Huarochiri and to the Palma family in Lima, Tello left for the United States aboard the steamship Loa (Mejia 1967b:viii), arriving in New York City on September 30, 1909 (Mejia 1964:80).

At Harvard, Tello studied under such notable anthropologists as Frederic W. Putnam, Franz Boas, Pliny E. Goddard, and Roland B. Dixon (Mejia 1948:51), the last of whom helped Tello adjust to his new surroundings by tutoring him in English (Lothrop 1948:51). Tello took courses in archaeology, sociology, ethnology, and linguistics (Mejia 1967b:ix) and, with Dixon's help (Tello 1914b), produced a study on the South American Arawak language (Tello 1913a). He had numerous opportunities to interact with American scholars, the Northeast then being the nation's center for anthropological studies. The annual meeting of the American Anthropological Association was held late in December in Boston (MacCurdy 1910) and in Providence (MacCurdy 1911) in 1909 and 1910, respectively, and Tello was listed as a new member at the 1910 meeting (MacCurdy 1911:100).

In a letter to the elder Palma dated June 24, 1910, Tello mentions a forthcoming trip to Arizona with a Dr. "Ferokes" of the Smithsonian Institution (Palma 1949, 2:425). This would have been Jesse W. Fewkes, and the trip would have entailed an exploration of Pueblo ruins in northern Arizona (Editor 1910:348). In the same letter, Tello indicated that he hoped to meet with Ales Hrdlicka (Palma 1949, 2:425). Hrdlicka, then curator of the Division of Physical Anthropology at the Smithsonian Institution, was scheduled to return from a trip to South America. In September of that year, he presented, at the Seventeenth International Congress of Americanists held in Mexico City, a preliminary report that included a discussion of the human remains that he had collected at archaeological sites in Peru. Subsequently, on May 3, 1911, he spoke in Washington, D.C., on the same subject at a special joint meeting of the Anthropological Society of Washington, D.C., and the Medical Society of the District of Columbia (Michelson 1911:318-319). It is unknown whether Tello attended either or both of these talks. It is known, however, that he was named to represent Peru at the 1911 meeting of the Association of U.S. Army Surgeons held in Richmond, Virginia (Mejia 1964:81). Tello (1915) later reported that one of the nineteen trephinated skulls comprising the Muniz collection was stored at the U.S. Military Medical Museum, while the remaining eighteen were to be found at the Bureau of Ethnology in Washington, D.C. This suggests that Tello traveled at the expense of the Peruvian government to study the collection of skulls that had inspired him to become an archaeologist.

During June 1911 Tello received a master's degree in anthropology from Harvard University (Mejia 1948:10). With the active assistance of the elder Palma (Miro Quesada 1966:418-420; Palma 1949, 2:433), Tello was allowed to continue his education abroad in a government resolution dated September 2 of that year (Mejia 1964:81). He left for England at the end of October (Mejia 1967b:ix), accompanied by his friend Ricardo, who had also been granted a scholarship to study abroad (Mejia 1948:10). A later government decree, dated December 16, 1911, obliged Tello to present a paper at the upcoming Eighteenth International Congress of Americanists to be held in London. In January 1912 he received official notification that he had been named to represent his country as an honorary delegate at this meeting (Mejia 1964:81-82). During the ensuing period, Tello assisted in special anthropological courses at London University before giving his talk on May 28 (Mejia 1967b:ix). In his paper, which dealt with the trephinated skulls he had found in the highlands east of Lima, he reported that part of his skeletal collection was housed at Harvard University's Warren Museum (Tello 1912:76). He had offered his collection to the Leguia government in 1909, but this offer had been rejected for financial reasons, which prompted the elder Palma to advise him to offer it elsewhere (Miro Quesada 1966:418). Hrdlicka attended Tello's talk, and he publicly praised Tello for his work (Editor 1912:xxxix).