Dynastic Chinese culture and some other Central Asian cultures view the center as a fifth principal direction hence the English translated term "Five Cardinal Points". Where it is different than the west, is that the term is used as a foundation for I Ching, the Wu Xing and the five Naked-eye planets.
Each direction is often identified with a color, and (at least in China) with a mythological creature of that color. Geographical or ethnic terms may contain the name of the color instead of the name of the corresponding direction. These traditions were also carried west by the westward migration of the Turkic peoples.
- Qingdao (Tsingtao) "Green Island": a city on the east coast of China
- Red River (Asia): south of China
- White Sheep Turkmen
- Belarus (literally "White Russia"), according to one of the theories is the name given to the Western Rus by the Mongols
- Heilongjiang "Black Dragon River" province in Northeast China, also the Amur River
- Kara-Khitan Khanate "Black Khitans" who originated in Northern China
- Huangshan "Yellow Mountain" in central China
- Golden Horde: "Central Army" of the Mongols